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I swear it has nothing to do with the Olympics

February 21, 2010

I’m not really that into nationalism. It feels outmoded and silly, and I can’t totally explain how or why. So this was… well, Canada’s adorable, let’s just leave it at that.

*******OH MY GOD IT’S WEEK 8. transl theory mon 2-21
writers working on texts in anticipation of being translated

translation and nation

translation and its target audience
>early modern times:
>>Latin -> clerical elite; ecumenical taste
>>Vernaculars -> emerging middle classes; national arbiters of taste
>culture and language
~~(cultivated; applied to individuals/shaping/trimming)
>>kultur
~~>content of what the cultivated person would know, rather than the process of doing that to them.
>>Johan Gottfried Herder: Treatise on the Origin of Language(1772)
~~>different cultures b/c there are different languages, and langs influence what a culture is (Romans and French thought there was a universal culture)

language and nation
>Wilhelm vonHumboldt
>Johann Gottlieb Fichter: Addresses to the German Nation (1807)
>linguistic nationalism
>>language as expression of the spirit of a people
>>literature as manifestation of this expression
~~>both French and Americans resist this b/c they both build themselves on ideas of universal culture (themselves models thereof) hence also rivalry btwn these two countries.
linguistic nationalism and normativity:
>dialects
>slang
~>used by sects to differentiate themselves; also Roman soldiers, non-native speakers, etc. use of “fuck” by American soldiers influencing way Afghan students learn English, that’s sort of cute. Linguistic nationalism marginalizes slang which promotes its development. Hee.
>official languages
>national languages

The Middle Ages were violent. Wow I had no idea! about 300 murders/100,000 inhabitants in France/Britain. Currently it is 0.5/100,000. Gracious. (In US it is 12. Russia is 30. Highest = Guatemala, followed by Honduras, Jamaica, Trinidad, S. Africa. Good to know I guess?)

Case studies: Spain
>languages of Iberia prior to 1492
~>several
>1492: Nebrija’s Grammar
~>Ferdinand/Isabel commissioned Nebrija for common lang
~>student of Latin and Greek, travelled through Spain and collected samples of langs, decided that Castilian would be basis, then simplified it. Grammatically very easy due to this, says WG; largely artificial creation, not evolved. “You can learn Spanish grammar in one weekend! Compared to, say, Hungarian grammar which takes… two lifetimes.”
>Castilian vs Spanish
~>espanol = not to be used in Spain. to be used in Spanish possessions abroad. distinction is minimal, hijos de algo rather than hijos de puta; peasants who fought in the reconquista and were promised land but didn’t get any. but the New World conveniently had some land! espanol used to recognize hijos de algo so they wouldn’t come back and cause problems.
>1713: Real Academia
>Franco’s linguistic policy
~>trying to repress other dialects, lots of resistance from Basque and Catalan.
~>somehow this leads to WG getting showered with funding. Yes that is the verb he used.
>present-day Spain
~>currently a little volatile and weird

Turkey and Turkic states
>turkish languages
~>originated in Mongolia and spread over most of northern Asia on the Steppes
>Ottoman empire
~>osmanli (sp?) version of turkish somewhat simplified, adopted Arab script (used to have its own script) slightly modified, very flourished imperial language
>>Drogoman
~~>official of the state who had to know several languages to write official docs
>Ataturk
~>”father of the Turks” after collapse of the empire decided to modernize Turkey, abolished Osmanli, dropped Arabic script and used Roman alphabet via German with the idea of joining Europe. very quickly cut itself off from its own past. most people today can’t read docs written before 1920.
>Uzbekistan
~>oldest civilazation speaking turkish still. had their own script, then Arabic script, then eventually (when they became part of the Russian Empire/USSR) cyrilic alphabet; now they have to decide new script! As yet undecided, makes for weird newspapers
>Azerbaijan
~>was for many years written with cyrilic scrip but is effectively turkish. presently thinking of Romanizing so that it will look like Turkish but they dont’ want to be confused for the Turks.

Canadaaaaaaaaaaaa
>Upper and Lower Canada
>Quebec after 1759
~>British wanted to oppress the French. New Brunswickians were very oppressed and went to Louisiana and became Cajuns apparently.
~>lots of elites in Canada are Scots, mostly Ulster, that is kind of weird. Later there were uprisings and then they were repressed?
>>before 1960
~~>Quebec started their own modernization, elected their own gov’t, did language laws
>>the Language Laws
~~>French = official language of Quebec
~~>made for weird stuff with schools based on religious whatsits, also there are lots of Jews in Montreal.
>Riel and the Metis Rebellion of the Prairies
>Official Bilingualism

Switzerland
>the linguistic situation
>>Schwytzertutsch
>>Rumansch (Graubunden, Grisons)
>>Italian
>>French, Welche
>Language policy and translation

Belgium
>Language and territory
>Brussels and its region
>Monolingualism
~lots of contention. train crashes!

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